Anisocoria, or differently sized pupils
What is anisocoria
Anisocoria is a special medical term by which pupils of different sizes are meant. For an adult, a difference of one millimeter is the absolute norm. In a child, pupils of different sizes are not necessarily a sign of any disease and may be a simple consequence of a genetic predisposition. In the event that the patient does not have any other symptoms, then there is nothing to worry about. However, the presence of pupils that differ in size by more than one millimeter, especially when this condition only progresses over time, may be a sign of the development of diseases of the blood vessels, brain or nerves.
Causes of anisocoria
One of the main reasons for the occurrence of such a phenomenon as pupils of different sizes is the use of eye drops. In this case, it is a natural and harmless change in the normal state.Exactly the same phenomenon can be observed with the accidental hit of drugs in the eyes, for example, when using inhalers - drugs for asthma. In newborns of different sizes, the pupils may be the result of a trauma of the cervical region, obtained during childbirth. Sudden and rapid development of anisocoria can be observed with hemorrhage in the brain, the appearance of a tumor in the brain, encephalitis or meningitis. In addition, different sized pupils may be associated with aneurysm, increased pressure in one eye, migraine, changes in the oculomotor nerve, carotid artery thrombosis, or impaired cerebral circulation. In children, the sudden appearance of different pupils can be triggered by any injury (contusion) or infection.
Diagnosis and treatment of anisocoria
Professional diagnostics of the phenomenon of anisocoria includes a series of neurological and physical examinations in a specialized medical institution. A blood test, computed tomography, a study of cerebrospinal fluid, tonometry (for suspected glaucoma), MRI, an x-ray of the neck and skull are required.Treatment will be entirely and completely dependent on the cause that caused the development of uneven pupil sizes. Depending on the specific diagnosis, the doctor may prescribe corticosteroids, migraine drugs, painkillers, anticonvulsants, anticancer drugs, or antibiotics.
Anisocoria in children
In the case of determining the anisocoria in the newborn, it is necessary to show the baby to an optometrist and a neurologist. If different pupils are observed in a child under five or six months, then, as a rule, doctors do not prescribe any specific treatment. In the absence of adverse symptoms and any pathological changes in the behavior of the baby, expectant tactics aimed at studying the dynamics and monitoring the development of the infant are recommended. In the case of anisocoria in older children, some treatment may be required.