Genre "Woe from Wit." Comedy in verses by A. Griboedov. Aphorisms from "Woe from Wit"
Comedy Griboyedov "Woe from Wit" is known to us since childhood, because it has long been included in the school curriculum. In this article we will talk in more detail about the genre of the work, its main themes and idea, consider the plot, the images of the main characters, and also give some of the most popular aphorisms.
About the work
The genre (“Woe from Wit”) will be discussed below, but for now let's talk about the history of creation. It is known that Griboedov began writing the play in 1821. During these years, the writer served in Tiflis, but nonetheless found time to work. In 1823, Griboedov returned to Moscow, where he completed work on the comedy. Here he first read the work among friends.
But the play was published after the death of the playwright. Censorship did not allow the publication of the work until 1833, and only the personal permission of the king helped.
It is not easy to determine what its genre is.“Woe from Wit” is an innovative work and violates many canonical principles of classicism. Like any traditional play, “Woe from Wit” basically has a love affair, but the main conflict is a social conflict that develops in parallel. In addition, the play combines domestic comedy, comedy of characters and public satire, which is unacceptable for classicism.
There are also doubts as to whether a work can be called a comedy, as the author described it. After all, the main character is completely atypical and does not cause laughter. On the other hand, there are all signs of the declared genre - satirical characters and situations.
As a result, modern critics have called the work a high comedy, since Griboedov raises serious social and moral problems in it. And the changes made to the genre by the author, due to the fact that for the implementation of the plan required more features than allowed the classical tradition.
The genre (“Woe from Wit”) is not for nothing considered innovative. To begin with, the author violated the work of unity of action.That is, instead of one conflict, as was customary in classicism, Griboedov depicts two - social and love. Also in a classic comedy, vice is inevitably overcome by virtue, but here it does not. Chatsky is in the minority and forced to flee.
Also in a different way depicts the characters Griboedov. They are not divided into negative and positive, and are endowed with more realistic features: they have both unflattering and positive qualities. For example, Sophia is experiencing personal drama, despite the fact that it can hardly be called a negative character. The girl was genuinely in love with Molchalin.
From the foregoing it can be concluded that the originality of the work consists in the fact that it includes several genres, of which the public comedy is the leading one.
The meaning of the name
In analyzing the play, it is impossible not to reveal the meaning of the title. “Woe from Wit” is the title that helps the reader to understand the main topic that the author wanted to reveal. Namely, he focused attention on the categories of the mind. To begin with, the title refers us to the Russian proverb, which describes the clash between the clever and the stupid, ending with the victory of the latter. Thus, before reading the text, we can already predict the outcome.
This conflict of stupidity and mind has always been important for classicism. But Griboyedov rethought it. No wonder the contemporaries immediately had a question: who is clever in a comedy? Critics agree that two are endowed with this quality - Molchalin and Chatsky. However, he helps the first one to live, and the second one he ruins. The fact is that we have two types of mind. In Molchalin - moderate, everyday, and in Chatsky ardent and unsuitable for reality. Thus, the meaning of the name (“Woe from Wit”) takes on a slightly different meaning. We see that unhappiness brings not just the mind, but the mind of a certain type.
Summary: first and second steps
The main character of the work is Alexander Andreevich Chatsky, a nobleman who, after a three-year journey, returns to his beloved Sophie. Thus, at first we see the usual love plot.
“Woe from Wit” begins with the revival of Lizonka, who did not get enough sleep because of the nightly meetings of Sophia and Molchalin because she had to keep the meeting secret. On the same day, the girl recalls her longstanding passion for Chatsky, calling him a smart and extraordinary man. However, this was all just a children's hobby, and he offended her with his unexpected departure. At this point, report on the return of Chatsky.
The young man is pleased to meet and intends to marry Sofya, but she meets him very coldly. Famusov also does not want to give his daughter for a nobleman without a high rank. A controversy is raging about "old" and "new" people.
Gradually, Chatsky begins to suspect that Sophia has another lover. He becomes cold, for which he is accused of insensitivity.
Left alone with Lisa, Molchalin was flirting with her.
The third and fourth act: the climax and the denouement
Comedy Griboyedov "Woe from Wit" does not give the reader the ideal hero: even Chatsky is portrayed as an imperfect man with his own shortcomings.
So, the main character can not understand who Mila Sofya is. He cannot consider Molchalina a candidate, since he is a “miserable creature,” incapable of passionate feelings and dedication. When it turns out that it was he who became the chosen one of Sophia, Chatsky was disappointed in his beloved.
The main character pronounces an incriminating monologue about modern society. At the same time, in the light of the rumor spread by Sofia, that Chatsky is insane, is spreading. As a result, the hero is forced to flee from Moscow.
“Woe from Wit”: characters
First, we list the main characters of the comedy.
- We begin, of course, with Alexander Chatsky. From childhood he knew Sophia and was in love with her. But 3 years before the beginning of the action of the comedy went to travel. The beginning of the play and the beginning of all conflicts are connected with his return. Chatsky opposes himself to society with all the ardor of youth. But in the end he suffers a defeat and he has to flee a house he has known since childhood.
- Sophia Famusova is a girl of 17 years old who grew up without a mother and was raised by her father. She selflessly in love with Molchalin and is ready to defend that to the last. Sophia is not stupid, Griboyedov also gave her courage and ability to resist the opinions of others.
- Alexey Molchalin - serves as a secretary at Famusov and lives in his house. He is very cautious and circumspect, he remembers his low origin. Molchalin knows that Sophia loves him. He does not reciprocate and is ready to pretend for the sake of a good relationship with his employer.
- And finally, Famusov Pavel Afanasyevich - the father of Sophia, who serves as manager in a government house. Two things are important to him - the rank and opinion of the world. He is very afraid of enlightenment and educated people.
There are other actors in the play "Woe from Wit." The characters of the second plan can be said to be divided into two groups - these are representatives of the local light and the servant. The first are a reflection of social trends. By them it is possible to judge what is happening in the minds of representatives of high society. Griboyedov portrays them dim-witted, ossified, stupid conservatives. These include Skalozub, Tugoukhovsky, Hryumin, Gorici, and Famusov, the head of the house. The genre (“Woe from Wit”) presupposes the presence of a comic beginning, which was embodied in this society.
Servants do not occupy such a significant place. They, as is customary in Russian literature, reflect the character of a nation. Among this group, two stand out — Lizonka, Sophia’s maid, who helps her to secretly see Molchalin, and Petrushka, who plays the role of mocker.
Themes of the work
In the play is not one topic. “Woe from Wit” has a wide range of issues. Griboyedov managed to touch on almost all the problems of his time. That is why the play has long been under censorship. So, we list the main themes of the comedy: the education and upbringing of the nobility, the cruelty of the landowners,serfdom, senseless bureaucracy, the pursuit of ranks, the struggle of the "old" and "new", arakcheevshchina, Frenchmania, liberalism, love of everything foreign. The writer also addresses such perennial themes as love, marriage, family, the relationship between a woman and a man, etc.
Aphorisms from "Woe from Wit"
Quotes from the play long fallen in love with readers and "went to the people." Now we can not always even understand that these are words from the work of Griboyedov, so we are accustomed to these expressions.
We give the most famous:
- “And the smoke of the Fatherland is sweet and pleasant for us!”
- "Happy hours are not watching."
- “A little light on my feet! And I'm at your feet. ”
- "Carriage for me, carriage!"
Aphorisms from “Woe from Wit” are so popular due to their accuracy and amazing topicality that has been preserved today.