Gerund in English: methods of use
Here we will not give an answer to the question: "What is a gerund in English and what forms can it take?" Let's try to figure out where and how to use it. Most often it is used as a supplement after the verb. In such cases, the gerund is translated as a verbal noun, and the translation into Russian is almost literally comparable to the original. Or it can be translated by a verb for greater harmony. For example: “She loves knitting. “She likes knitting.” In Russian, of course, the “She loves to knit” option will be more resonant and familiar, but the first option is acceptable. After the majority of English verbs, both the infinitive and gerund (I prefer skiing - I prefer to ski) can be used. But after certain verbs the meaning of the infinitive and the gerund will not be the same, they should not be confused. If “She likes knitting” equals “She likes to knit”, then the sentences “I stop to think” and “I stop thinking” will have completely different meanings (“I stopped to think” and “I stopped thinking”). There are a number of verbs, after which the gerund is used exclusively. For example: "remember", "require".There are also many stable combinations consisting of a verb and prepositions, after which only the gerund is also used. For example, "to be fond of" or "to prevent from". And also only the gerund (and not the infinitive) is used after the composite prepositions, such as "in spite of", "thanks to". It is easy to see that the gerund in English takes place after those expressions and turns, after which the noun is used, and not the verb. For example, we can say "in spite of disease", "in spite of feeling ill", or "to be fond of cats", "to be fond of skiing".
How to distinguish between a gerund and first communion
If you remove the context, the difference between them is really difficult to understand. Both are derived from the verb using the same ending, “-ing”. However, in terms of meaning, these are different parts of speech. All Russian students are familiar with the fact that it is a sacrament, and the gerund has no analogues in the Russian language. Unless he is very similar in character to the Russian verbal noun (swim - swimming, draw - drawing, swim - swimming, draw - drawing), however, the gerund in English is used much more widely than the corresponding verbal noun in Russian. We can form from the verb “to think” the noun “thinking”, but such a word even in colloquial speech is very rare.It can be created only in order to understand the principles of word formation on which English is based. A gerund can be formed from any verb (cf. thinking sounds familiar and natural to an Englishman). And here we come to the main difference between the sacrament and gerund. Gerund in English has the characteristics of a noun and a verb, while participle is another non-personal form of the verb, having the characteristics of an adjective and a verb. Hence their behavior: the gerund is used with prepositions, but the participle is not, the gerund can be the subject, and the participle in the sentence is only a definition, circumstance or part of the predicate.
Verbal noun and gerund
In English, there is another part of speech that students can take for gerund - a verbal noun. After all, it is formed in the same way as the first participle and gerund: by joining the suffix "–ing" to the verb. Yes, English is surprising not with a variety of forms, but with the ability to achieve a variety of effects using a limited set of tools. There are three parts of speech that have exactly the same form: cooking, cooking and cooking, but depending on where and in what environment they are located, their meaning will differ.Gerunds: “I adore cooking” - “I love cooking” (cooking - action in progress). Communion: “Cooking woman is my sister” - “The woman who cooks is my sister” (cooking - action is a sign). Verbal noun: “Vacuum cooking is good for vegetables” - “Vacuum cooking is good for vegetables” (cooking, cooking is an action-object). Already in these examples we can notice a significant difference between a gerund and a verbal noun. The latter can be used with the article and can have a definition expressed by an adjective, and generally have almost the entire set of noun features: besides what has already been said, a verbal noun can be used in the plural, does not lean at times, cannot have a voice prepositional supplement. In contrast, a gerund can be followed by a direct addition. Compare: "cooking the dinner" (direct addition after the gerund) and "cooking of a cake" (prepositional addition after the verbal noun).