How to harbor grapes for the winter: gardeners tips
As is known, this culture prefers warm climatic conditions. In regions with a cool climate, grapes grow very poorly, and even worse, it tolerates any jumps. However, this prevents many gardeners from growing a similar crop in conditions of fairly severe frosts. Even in Siberia, you can feast on these sweet fruits from your country site, if you know how to cover the grapes for the winter in the Moscow region and other cities of the country.
What is it for?
Of course, for cultivation in regions where the cold temperature prevails in winter, special varieties of this crop are used that can withstand up to -30 degrees. However, this does not mean that such plants are not sensitive to spring frosts. Before you figure out how to cover the grapes for the winter, it is worth considering the fact that even the most frost-resistant plants need appropriate care and the necessary temperature conditions.
If the grape variety is among the most persistent, then this does not mean that it will also tolerate weather fluctuations as well. As soon as the outside temperature rises, the plants weaken their hardening, so night frost can be disastrous for them. In addition, it is necessary to take into account the sensitive root system of grapes. If the earth freezes to a temperature of -20 degrees, then there is a huge risk that the culture will die, and not having pleased the gardener with a harvest of tasty berries.
Before you cover the grapes for the winter in central Russia or colder regions, it is necessary to make preparatory measures.
How to prepare a plant
Regardless of the type of shelter chosen, before installing it you must:
- Perform pruning to form young bushes, and do not forget about the annual autumn pruning of fruit-bearing vineyards.
- Get rid of all the fallen leaves. If it remains on the ground, it will begin to rot and spread the infection, which can be harmful to the plant in frost conditions.
- Tie a vine trim with a rope or wire.
- Treat plants with a 3% solution of ferrous sulfate.To do this, 350 g of the composition must be diluted in a bucket of water.
- Bind the vines gently to lay out along the rows.
If we talk about how to properly cover the grapes for the winter, then there are several effective ways to help protect the plant from the weather and cold weather. Consider them in more detail.
This type of shelter is considered the easiest and most accessible to everyone. However, this method of protection against frost is not suitable for every region. The principle of shelter is that the vines are covered with a natural, natural "blanket."
U-shaped brackets are required for this. With their help, it is necessary to fix the vines on the ground. After that, it is enough to wait until nature takes its toll. Snow is an excellent shelter for winter grapes. 30 cm layer is enough to reliably protect the plant. However, in this case, you need to be sure that during the winter the snow will fall constantly. If the thaw comes and the vines become bare, they can die very quickly. In the middle part of Russia, the temperature regime is constantly changing, so this type of plant protection will not work.
But if we talk about how to cover the grapes for the winter in Siberia, then this method is considered universal. Temperature fluctuations are rarely observed in this region, so the snow cover will reliably protect the plant throughout the winter.
Spruce Fir Tree
This method of shelter also belongs to the most simple. In this case also need to fix the vines on the ground. They can be twisted rings around the base of the grape bush. After that, it is enough to cover them with fir spruce branches. Its thickness depends on how severe the winter is expected.
However, the reliability of this method is questionable. This method of shelter is suitable only for young plants, as it is very difficult to obtain the necessary amount of spruce material. For this you have to spoil a lot of trees. Therefore, it is most convenient to go where the deforestation is carried out and collect the necessary amount of material.
Shelter ground from the aisle
This method is also quite simple, but it will require a lot of time and effort. Before covering the grapes for the winter, it is necessary to dig a trench along the grape rows.Its depth should be at least 20 cm, and the width will depend on how thick the bunch of vines. After that, in a trench it is necessary to lay out the vines and fill them with earth, which is taken from the row spacing.
After that, above the grooves you need to create bulk earthworks, whose height will be at least 15 cm. This will help protect the vines of the plant from severe frosts. Among the advantages of such a shelter is its cheapness. However, this method has several disadvantages:
- If the winter is mild and the temperature fluctuates often, there is a big risk that the kidneys can be partially or completely damaged. The fact is that they can start to whip during the thaw, because of this they die.
- This method of shelter is not suitable for areas where active spring floods are observed.
- During the collection of land from between rows, grape rhizomes become bare. This is permissible only under the condition of snowless winters.
- When digging vines in the spring, there is a high probability of damaging the vines.
Therefore, before covering the grapes for the winter in the Moscow region or another region, you should pay attention to the nuances described above.
Gardeners consider this method the most reliable for protecting plants for the winter period. The principle of this method is that bunches of vines are pressed to the ground and covered with several layers of insulating and moisture-proof material. In the role of insulation may be straw, spruce branches, wood chips and so on. However, the use of foliage of fruit trees as a covering material is not recommended, as they contain bacteria and fungi.
As a waterproofing material, you can use an opaque film, roofing felt, linoleum, rubber or slate.
However, before covering the grapes for the winter with this method, it is worth considering that in this case you will have to spend a certain amount of money. However, most materials can be found at any country site. Also, be sure to leave the product. If the shelter is not ventilated, the plants may start to rot. Also, do not allow condensation to form under the film material.
Time and Dates
Speaking about how to cover the grapes for the winter, it is necessary to determine when it is necessary to perform this procedure.On this account, the opinions of winegrowers vary greatly. Some experts believe that it is necessary to carry out these activities long before the onset of cold weather. Others are convinced that it is impossible to cover the grapes before the air temperature drops to -5 degrees.
In this case, before covering the grapes for the winter, it is necessary to assess the situation and try to find the so-called golden mean. For example, if the vine has ripened well, then its buds will be distinguished by increased stamina and frost resistance. Even the most tender grape varieties can withstand up to -14 degrees without any protection. However, if the vines are not ripe, then they will be more defenseless. In this case, you need to equip the protection a little earlier.
Before covering the grapes for the winter, it is also worth remembering that with the onset of the first cold days, certain biological processes take place in the vines, which can be compared with an increase in human immunity. Such hardening will help the plant to tolerate frosts in the future more steadily. Therefore, it is not too early to create shelter
If the vines and buds are not mature enough, then most likely they are sick or too young.In this case, it is recommended to make arrangements for shelter before the onset of extreme cold.
Many novice growers do not always correctly produce plant protection. Most often they make the same mistakes:
- Neglect the preparatory process.
- Choose the wrong method of shelter, which is not suitable for a particular region of the country. It is important to consider all the features of the suburban area.
- Incorrectly calculate the dates of shelter grapes.
- They create too tight shelters that do not allow the required amount of air.
- Lay the insulation material between the vines and the ground. The fact is that the soil is the only source of heat in winter. If insulation is laid between the ground and the plant, the vines may freeze.
Other ways to hide
In addition to the methods described above, there are other options that can be used to protect grapes. For example, some gardeners build some kind of shelter from old boards and other lumber. Inside it is sheathed with fiberglass, geotextile, roofing felt or other materials.After that, the vines are laid in shallow trenches or pressed to the ground. Shields enough to install a "house". From above it is possible to cover them with polyethylene.
If there is no lumber, then we harbor grapes for the winter in central Russia with slate. Vines also need to be placed in trenches and then lay protective material on them. Some gardeners make slate improvised houses.
Also over the grapes you can build arches covered with polyethylene. Such a greenhouse will help preserve the plant in winter. However, the height of the arches should be at least 30 cm.
Based on the foregoing, it is obvious that grapes can grow even in the harsh conditions of Siberia. To do this, you just need to organize the necessary protection for the winter period. Knowing all these subtleties, you can enjoy delicious berries from your site.