Kolonovidnaya pear: description and photo. Varieties for the Moscow region, planting and care
Some consider this fruit tree to be unproductive. However, among those gardeners who love to grow new varieties, and who appreciate every square meter of land, a colonized pear has become popular. With proper care, its yield per hectare is three times higher than that of classic pears. Yes, and collect its fruits much easier. This "inch" has its own requirements for planting and cultivation. All of them are easy to do. So, it will be useful and interesting for everyone to plant at least a couple of such fruit trees on their land.
Scientist-breeder Kachalkinom columnar pear was bred as a dwarf species. Therefore, the size of her really tiny. However, in the height of the tree can stretch up to 2.5 meters. The trunk of the columnar pears looks no different from the usual, but it is somewhat thicker and almost always even, not branched. Some believe that the columnar pear grows without branches. This is not true.She also has branches, only they never form a fluffy sprawling crown. Fruits on them are almost not formed, mainly only on small fruit sprigs growing on the trunk itself. The leaves and flowers of the columnar varieties are common, pears are large and juicy. Fruiting these fruit trees begin early, in the second year after planting. But they do not live long. Most often after 10 years, the garden has to be updated.
The columnar pear does not require a lot of space, so it can always be found in the garden corner. It is advisable to prepare a landing pit in advance. For example, if planting is done in the spring, then they dig a hole in the fall. This is done so that the fertilizers applied during the winter are completely “ripe”. In this state, for the root system of the tree, they are more digestible. You need to make manure or compost, mix it well with the ground. Buckets enough for 5 holes. While the tree is young, it may suffer from the wind. Therefore, it is better to plant colon-shaped pears closer to any obstacle - at the fence, near the house or in another place protected from powerful winds. The distance between the holes can be made small, from 50 cm, and the aisle from 1.5 meters.A good option is to leave between the trees in a row up to a meter so that in the future it would be convenient to process them from pests and carry out pruning.
When and how to plant
The planting of the columnar pear should be done in the spring, so that over the summer the young sapling has managed to adapt, take root well and start growing. Then he will endure the winter cold more easily. In autumn, pears are also planted, but this is not the best option.If you really had to, it should be done maximum until the beginning of October. Spring landing begins after the earth warms up well. The time periods are different in each region, but it is not recommended to plant colonic pears before April and later June.
The process of landing such. They pour a bucket of water into a prepared pit, wait until it is absorbed, put a seedling (the root neck does not deepen), straighten the roots, sprinkle them with soil (garden soil with sand 3: 1 and some potassium superphosphate), carefully compacted, add soil again and condense again. This is done so that there are no air voids near the roots. At the end, near the trunk, a shallow hole is arranged, so that water lingers in it, it is watered.It is desirable to tie seedlings of pear-shaped pears to a support (peg) so that the wind or any animal accidentally breaks a tree that has not yet become strong.
Departure after landing
Cultivation of pear-shaped pearls is even easier to some extent than ordinary ones. In the first weeks after planting, the saplings should be watered as soon as the water in the near-stem hole dries completely. The right decision is to mulch the earth in the near-wellbore. Next, reduce watering to 1 time in 2-3 days. To seedlings well rooted, care for them includes breaking off all the inflorescences that appear in the year of planting.Some gardeners advise in the first year to pinch the top of the seedling. This is also done with the goal of giving the tree the opportunity to put all its forces into the development and survival of the root system. In autumn, the trunk of a young tree about 40 - 50 cm from the ground is preferably tied with some insulation. Firstly, in case of severe frosts, this will prevent its freezing, and secondly, the insulation will protect animals from damaging the bark, if they suddenly wander into the garden that remained unattended in winter.
For the most part, the ciliated pears require approximately the same care as all other fruit trees. It consists in periodic watering, especially in the period of setting and ripening of fruits. During these months, trees should be watered every three days, each time trying to completely fill the hole with moisture around the trunk. Fertilizer is desirable to make every year. In the spring it can be mineral dressing, and in the autumn compost, humus, “ripe” manure. In order to get a good harvest, it is necessary to regulate the number of ovaries. To do this, in each outlet of inflorescences leave only two flowers. The rest is cut off. In early spring, while the buds are sleeping, they are pruning the columnar pears. Lateral branches are removed completely or until the second kidney, skeletal ones are left. Strongly shred trees in pursuit of fruits is impossible, because with the help of foliage they breathe and produce metabolic processes. In addition, after the active pruning, columnar pears emit many new shoots. If the apical bud gave several shoots, choose the most powerful, the rest are removed.
Non-infectious pear diseases
It is believed that the columnar pears are resistant to diseases.In part, this is so, and yet dwarf plants can be attacked by the same insects that harm ordinary trees. The neighborhood of apple trees is especially dangerous for pears, since their pests are about the same. These are the hawthorn, gall midge, pear moth, moths, mites, weevils, scutes, aphid. Some of them destroy the leaves, others spoil the fruit. In any case, the tree starts to hurt, its viability decreases.
Fight against insects begin in the autumn, in the first year of planting the columnar pear. It consists in cleaning all the leaves under the tree, inspecting the twigs and removing from them all not fallen, dry, twisted, blackened leaves. It is very useful to loosen the soil at the trunk, so that the eggs and larvae left there by pests are lost. But this must be done with extreme caution, since the columnar pear has a superficial root system that is easily damaged. As a preventive measure, they spend autumn spraying of trees with urea (diluted according to the instructions) or top dressing with the same preparation. The next spraying should be in early spring over unopened buds. In addition, pears are sick because of improper care,consisting in excessive waterlogging or, conversely, dehydration of the soil, from a lack of minerals (without dressings).
If the above diseases of pears are simply unpleasant, because they spoil the look of the tree and reduce the harvest, then infectious diseases can completely destroy the plant. The most dangerous diseases of pear are bacterial burn and bacterial cancer. Their pathogens are bacteria, which are very difficult to fight. Besides them, there is also scab, fruit rot, septoria and leaf spot caused by fungi. In order to prevent these diseases, it is necessary to take a responsible approach to autumn gardening and fertilizing. A great benefit in the fight against fungal diseases is brought by the autumn whitewashing of trunks with lime, to the solution of which you can add copper or iron vitriol (seedlings are treated with chalk). In order to avoid the appearance of bacterial diseases, mechanical damage to the roots and above-ground parts of pears should not be allowed. When pruning wounds need to gloss over the garden pitch or any oil paint on linseed oil.
Of course, it is better to buy ready-made seedlings.But sometimes you want to get a variety that is not on sale. It is believed that the columnar pear propagates by seeds and cuttings. When seed reproduction of fruits can be expected for a very long time, and the grown seedling needs a stock. Some types of ordinary pears really breed by cuttings. You can also try to propagate and kolonovidnuyu. The cuttings are used green (summer). They are cut so that they had 3-4 sheets and at least two internodes. The grafting is carried out in greenhouses in the ground, which is a layer of sand (4 cm) on a layer of peat moss (up to 4 cm). Before planting, the cuttings are kept in the root formers for a day. If the cutting takes root, it very quickly grows. But the best of all is the grafting pear. Reviews gardeners say the rapid growth of rooted branches, their good yield. As a stock the usual pear or shad can act.
In recent years, the columnar pear becomes popular with selectors. Varieties, which are quite a few, differ in terms of ripening and taste of the fruit. They are denoted by the numeral and the general letter "G".
- Г1 - winter, fruits are yellow, weighing 0.25 kg each.
- G2 - late autumn, fruits are green, with red strokes, weighing 0.2 kg.
- G3 - early autumn, fruits are large, bright yellow with oily skin, weighing up to 0.4 kg.
- G4 - autumn, fruits - up to 0.3 kg each.
- G5 - summer-autumn, the fruits are yellow, with red strokes, weighing up to 0.25 kg.
What to plant in the suburbs
In each group, marked with the letter "G", there are varieties with familiar names to us. Unfortunately, in the climatic conditions of the Moscow region not every pony-shaped pear can bear fruit well. The following varieties are suitable for the Moscow region:
- G4 "Tenderness". Fruits are large, green, unusually juicy.
- G1 "Sapphire". The fruits have characteristic burgundy or reddish barrel, large and unusually tasty.
- G5 "Severyanka." This is a very frost-resistant variety. The fruits ripen in early August. Their size is small, up to 120 grams.
- "Decor". The fruits also ripen in August. Their size is small, up to 200 grams, but the taste is excellent, and the yield of the variety is very high.
- G3 "Favorite Yakovlev." The harvest ripens in the first half of September. Fruits are medium sized, smooth, green-yellow.