Kumis: what it is, useful properties and contraindications
Koumiss is about which the ancient nomadic peoples knew. It is an effervescent foaming drink with a slight alcoholic odor. As a rule, it is made from mare's or camel's milk. Therefore, the product has a beneficial effect on the human body. You will learn about how koumiss is useful, what it is and where it is used, from today's article.
A bit of history
It is known that koumiss existed more than five thousand years ago. A confirmation of this theory was found in the Susymar Valley. The researchers were able to find bags of goat skin, which were identified traces of mare's milk. It is possible that he was fermented by the same technology as koumiss.
The first written mention of this miraculous drink appeared in the time of Herodotus. The great Greek historian and traveler narrated that the recipe and benefits of koumiss were known to nomadic Scythians, who kept secret the technology of its preparation.Later references to this drink are found in the Ipatiev Chronicle, as well as in the notes of overseas travelers and missionaries. For example, in the notes of the French monk Guillaume de Rubruk described in detail not only the taste of koumiss, but also the principle of its manufacture.
Initially, only mare's milk was used to produce this drink. But over time, the recipe for koumiss has undergone some changes. Now it is made from camel and cow's milk. However, despite the existing diversity, some nations still prefer to use a drink prepared according to the traditional recipe.
Kumis - what is it?
This product is a pleasant, refreshing and quite nutritious drink with a sweet and sour taste. Of particular value is a high concentration of yeast cells, accumulated as a result of alcoholic fermentation.
Koumiss can be considered “alive” because it cannot be stored for a long time. As a rule, it contains a small amount of alcohol. The strength of the drink depends on what technology it is made.So, for example, in a product made according to the classic recipe, the concentration of alcohol is negligible.
Despite the fact that religion forbids Muslims to drink alcohol, camel koumiss is not prohibited by the Koran. Therefore, it is the only intoxicating drink among Eastern peoples.
To date, there are three types of drink we are considering. This classification takes into account the amount of alcohol and acid present in it. Depending on the percentage of alcohol emit:
- Strong koumiss (what it is - you already know). This is the sweetest of all existing varieties. It is obtained as a result of a three-day fermentation of the feedstock. It contains up to three percent alcohol. This drink can be easily recognized by a large amount of gases and a rich but unstable foam.
- Average koumiss, which is a product of two-day fermentation. It is not divided into layers and contains no more than two percent alcohol. This sort of drink has a sharp and rather sour taste. It can be easily recognized by the presence of persistent fine foam.
- Weak koumiss obtained a day after the start of fermentation. It has a low content of gases. When upholding, this sort of beverage is stratified into two fractions.It tastes very similar to mare's milk.
The composition of the drink
Koumiss is considered an excellent source of easily digestible protein, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and folic acid. It contains a sufficient amount of lactic acid bacteria and some natural alcohol.
In addition, a relatively high concentration of biotin and unsaturated low molecular weight acids is present in this drink. Kumys is also rich in vitamins C, E, B and A. The energy value of one liter of the drink is 300-400 kilocalories.
Koumiss, whose properties are due to its unique composition, has a beneficial effect on the general condition of the human body. It helps strengthen hair, reduce weight and normalize digestion. This drink is shown to people suffering from metabolic disorders, dysbacteriosis, pancreatitis and other diseases of the gastrointestinal tract.
It is proved that regular use of koumiss allows you to increase the level of hemoglobin and reduce the number of leukocytes in the blood. It helps to quickly recuperate after a serious illness. Koumiss drink is considered a good prevention of tuberculosis, bronchitis and pneumonia. It is recommended to use with vitamin deficiency and exhaustion.Natural product helps to normalize sleep and strengthen the nervous system.
Despite all the beneficial properties, this drink has several contraindications. So, it is not recommended to use it in case of individual intolerance of the product. It is also undesirable to drink koumiss (what it is, you learned from today's article) in the period of exacerbation of any chronic diseases of the gastrointestinal tract.
You can not use the product for cancer and during the passage of chemotherapy. It is contraindicated in various acute diseases. It is strictly forbidden to drink koumiss to people who do not digest lactose and are allergic to dairy products.
As is known, the raw material for the manufacture of this drink is horse milk. His pasteurized and poured into a special clean dishes. Fresh mare's milk, sourdough cooked on pure cultures of yeast and lactic acid sticks, and warm boiled water are also sent there. After that, the container is covered with a lid with a hole in which the tolcushka is inserted, intended for shaking up the future drink.
In terms of industrial production, an improved technology for the manufacture of koumiss is used. Instead of traditional skins and Bishkeks, special systems for the collection and preservation of milk are used here. Milk yeast or chemical enzymes are added to the raw materials, fermented and whipped in special oak vessels that have a conical shape. The finished drink is poured into hermetically sealed bottles with a thin neck and after a certain period of time sent to the refrigerator.
Homemade koumiss from cow's milk
Unfortunately, not everyone has the opportunity to try a real drink, made by the original technology. Do not despair. You can also cook koumiss at home, using cow's milk instead of mare. To do this, a couple of tablespoons of natural light honey is added to a liter of low-fat product. All is well mixed and heated, not boiling. After that, the dishes are removed from the stove and sent to her another tablespoon of honey.
Then the milk mixture is allowed to cool. When it cools down, a couple of tablespoons of kefir is poured into it and removed in a warm place.Twenty-four hours later, the obtained yogurt is filtered through gauze folded in several layers and a couple of tablespoons of natural honey is added to it. Three grams of dry or pressed yeast, previously dissolved in a small amount of lukewarm water, is poured there.
After the honey sour milk begins to ferment, it is removed in the refrigerator for further ripening. Twelve hours later, homemade koumiss from low-fat cow's milk is completely ready for use. Store this drink is recommended in the refrigerator for a week. After this period, the product becomes unusable and may harm your health instead of benefit. You should also be sure to mention that during heat treatment, koumiss loses most of its useful properties. That is why it is desirable to use it only in the pre-cooled.