Meldonium - what is it? Doping scandal in Russia and the world
The question of what Meldonium is of interest to many, after the next scandal with doping samples. I will introduce you to the drug and consider the subtleties of its use - indications, contraindications and dosage.
Meldonium is a metabolic agent developed in Latvia in the 1980s, which normalizes the energy metabolism of cells undergoing ischemia or hypoxia. Used to combat cardiovascular diseases, prevention of heart attack and angina. In 2012, the drug was included in the list of essential medicines. In January 2016, the World Anti-Doping Agency included the drug in the banned list.
Ivar Kalvinsh, the creator of meldonium, claims that his brainchild optimizes the consumption of oxygen, as a result of which the cells in the body produce energy under conditions of less oxygen.
In the post-Soviet space, meldonium enjoys an enviable demand.Especially popular among professional athletes, because it allows the body to adapt to huge loads and accelerates the recovery of forces without a significant increase in physical capabilities.
In early 2015, meldonium appeared in the list of drugs that are not considered doping, but in the sports field they are checked for blood. In the autumn of the same year (the ban came into force on January 1, 2016), he was on the list of substances prohibited for use by athletes, compiled by the World Anti-Doping Agency.
According to the current classification, meldonium is a hormone and a modulator of metabolism. There was information that the experts found evidence of the use of the drug by athletes for the sake of improving the results. The creator of the drug claims that the agency's assessment is scientifically unfounded, and the ban is an initiative of competitors producing carnitine.
How does doping meldonium for sportsmen
Meldonium is a structural analogue of γ-butyrobetaine - a substance present in the body that positively affects energy metabolism and stimulates the nervous system.It has been used in sports because it increases endurance of the body during training and helps to cope with the mental load during the competition. Let's take a closer look at the principle of the action of doping meldonia.
- When the body is regularly and continuously subjected to physical and mental stress, meldonium controls the balance of delivery and oxygen consumption. This is due to the stimulation of metabolic processes, which provides energy at a lower cost of oxygen.
- Due to the large load the body rapidly loses energy and strength. Thanks to meldonium, the athlete copes with titanic workouts, consumes oxygen sparingly and recovers energy resources much faster.
- Meldonium accelerates the transmission of nervous excitement, as a result, the work of muscle mass is accelerated. The substance allows you to maximize the use of the body and easier to endure physical and neuro-psychological stress. Especially manifested when a person pumps muscles.
- In the process of training, a lot of energy is consumed, the amount of fatty acids in the cells is reduced.Thanks to mildronat, cells adapt to the deficiency of fatty acids and survive under conditions in which unprepared brethren die.
- During the competition, the athlete's body is subjected to neuro-psychological stress. Mildronate prepares nerve cells for stress. In this case, the athlete maintains a clear mind and optimal physical shape.
- A unique mechanism of action on the body allowed meldonium to find application in the fight against various diseases. It is used by healthy people to improve performance.
- The metabolic substance under consideration improves the transport of glucose to the cells. Normal energy supply of the heart muscle and brain is carried out even in conditions of low blood sugar.
If during training or competition it is not possible to fill the blood with oxygen and provide the body with energy, the cells survive only through the proper use of available resources.
Instructions for use meldonium
Any drug has side effects and contraindications. The effect of drugs has a significant effect on the diet, because the products can enhance or minimize the therapeutic effect. Most often problems arise due to improper dosage.
I will review the instructions for the use of Meldonium for various diseases.Before taking the drug, be sure to consult your doctor.
- Disorders of cerebral circulation. During the acute phase, they are consumed daily for 0.5 g. The course of treatment is one month.
- Cardiovascular diseases. In this case, meldonium is an element of complex therapy. Take every day 500 mg. The daily dose is often divided into two doses. Six weeks is the optimal duration of treatment.
- Cardialgia. Take 500 mg daily. Cardialgia is not an independent disease, but a consequence of a pathological process. It takes a month and a half to fix the problem.
- Chronic impairment. The daily dose of 500 mg, the duration of treatment is one month. Repeated course is allowed only after consultation with the doctor.
- Mental and physical overload. Athletes take the drug at 0.5 grams per day for two weeks. Sometimes the treatment is repeated after two decades.
- Chronic alcoholism. When a person seeks to stop drinking, he is recommended to take Meldonia 500 mg four times a day for a week under the supervision of a doctor.
- Vascular pathology. Inject the drug. The dosage is calculated by the doctor taking into account the patient’s condition and the phase of the disease.
- Trainings and competitions. Professional athletes use twice a day, 0.5 grams before exercise. The course of treatment in the preparatory period of 2 decades, during the competition - one decade.
Mildronate is forbidden to take with increased intracranial pressure, during pregnancy and during the feeding period. The list of contraindications includes high sensitivity.
Meldony and mildronat - the same thing?
Meldonium is a drug that improves metabolism and provides the body with energy at the cellular and tissue levels. Currently, there are three dosage forms for sale:
- Injection solution.
The basis of the listed dosage forms is the active substance meldonium, the trade names of which are Mildronate, Mildrocard, Cardionate, Midolat, THP.
Athletes disqualified for meldonium in Russia and the world
Meldonium was not considered doping for almost 50 years, until 2016. On March 11, 2016, 60 athletes were tested for doping.
Maria Sharapova, a Russian tennis player and a multiple world champion, took the drug. In the list of Russian athletes convicted of using meldonium, there is a cyclist Vorganov, volleyball player Markin, skater Kouzhnikov, figure skater Bobrova.
Athletes from other countries admitted to using Mildronat in March 2016: Ukrainian biathlete Abramova and biathlete Tishchenko, Ethiopian marathon runner Negesse, Swedish and Turkish middle-distance runners Aregavi and Bulut, the Georgian wrestling team in full composition.
According to the current WADA rules, doping is punishable by disqualification for up to 48 months. For the duration of the investigation, athletes with positive doping samples are excluded from the competition. If the expert committee decides to disqualify an athlete, he may lose the titles obtained in the championship, within which a violation was found.
Separate attention deserves the financial side of the issue. For example, with the involved in the scandal with meldonius Sharapova suspended advertising contracts of the brand Nike and Porsche. If executives break contracts, the tennis player will lose hundreds of millions of dollars.