San Marco is a cathedral in Venice. Description, history and interesting facts
Fairy Italy, whose attractionstacitly testify to the rich history, is of great interest to travelers. Charming Venice occupies a separate place among other cities of the country, and its architectural masterpieces are known all over the world.
The Medieval Monument of Basilica of San Marco
Ancient San Marco is a cathedral in Venice, whichright is recognized as an outstanding monument of Middle Ages art. The beautiful building, which appeared in the IX century, excites people's hearts, forcing them to fight harder at the sight of a rare example of Byzantine architecture in Europe. In 1987, the landmark was listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Residents of the city and foreign guests are admiring the ancient cathedral, occupying an honorable place in the world treasury of architectural works.
St. Mark's Cathedral in St. Mark's Square
The main religious attraction of Veniceis located in the area of Sestiere San Marco, on the eponymous central square (Piazza San Marco), which is the visiting card of the city. Most tourists hurry to get acquainted with the significant monuments of the country, to the famous San Marco in Venice (area).
The cathedral, whose history includes severalcenturies, showed the power and greatness of the Venetian Republic. Initially it was planned that in the basilica will be the relics of St. Mark, who in 829 were rescued by Italian traders from the desecration of Muslims and brought to the city by water from Alexandria. According to the legend, the wandering apostle was dreamed of by an angel who declared that after death he would find peace in Venice, and the merchants fulfilled his last will. When the shrine arrived in the city, the apostle received the status of his patron.
In 832, the first version of the cathedral appeared,which in 150 years was seriously destroyed by fire, but the remains of the saint were not harmed. Later, the basilica was restored, and she rejoiced the parishioners. Its original architectural appearance was quite ascetic.
Contemporary Cathedral of San Marco: description, history, exact address
The construction of a modern basilica locatedat San Marco, 328, 30124 Venezia, began in 1063, and at the end of the century the building was consecrated. But for several centuries the design of the fabulously beautiful church of San Marco continued. Cathedral in Venice - an unusual attraction, because it was adorned with new generations of Venetians, giving the appearance of a religious monument of identity. And as a result, the sight, which became a place of pilgrimage of tourists, turned into a museum of Middle Ages art.
In the architectural appearance of the basilica, composed ofbricks, there are elements of all kinds of styles. Marble of excellent quality, Greek bas-reliefs, Gothic capitals formed a wonderful whole ensemble. Thanks to the unique talent of builders in the world, there is no such masterpiece capable of competing in beauty and grandeur with San Marco.
Cathedral in Venice, which went down in history as a basilicaSt. Mark, in the Middle Ages was not officially considered a cathedral, and until the beginning of the XIX century this status belonged to the city church of San Pietro di Castello.
The world masterpiece has turned into the center of the citypublic life: there were funeral services of heroes, dedications of doges and other important ceremonies, local people went there seeking solace. It is no exaggeration to say that St. Mark's Cathedral became a religious and civil symbol of the city.
Relics brought from other countries
The magnificent cathedral in Venice in St. Mark's Square was received between the 12th and 14th centuries. Elements of the decor belong to different times and are brought from other countries.
The form of the cathedral is a Greek cross. Builders of Venice, economically and politically connected with Byzantium, have adopted much from the masters of a powerful empire, including the construction of a building crowned with five domes resembling lanterns.
Facades made of bricks that were not visible under themarble lining, decorate various relics brought to Venice. For example, some reliefs depicting hunting scenes were made in Byzantium, and carved pylons were brought from Syria.
Pala d "Oro, created half a century
The majestic San Marco (the cathedral in Venice)is famous throughout the world for its unique golden altar, recognized as the richest among those that have survived to this day. In the upper part of the brightest element of the decoration of the temple are inserted miniature medallions, made in the technique of cloisonne enamel. Expensive plates were removed from Constantinople and are the greatest value. Decorated with precious stones and gold, they are recognized as a genuine work of art.
Iconostasis and Cyria
The altar part is separated by a Gothic iconostasis fromdark red marble, brought from Constantinople, from the central nave. It is crowned by a huge cross, and on both sides of the barrier are 14 sculptures: 12 apostles, the statue of the Virgin Mary and the apostle Mark.
There is also a special canopy overa throne called "kivory." Under him are the relics of the apostle, transferred in the 30s of the XIX century from the crypt, in a marble sarcophagus, which is supported by four alabaster columns. On each of them are carved reliefs with images of the Virgin Mary and Jesus Christ.
Crypt of the basilica
In 1094, the relics of the apostle were placed in the crypt- a vaulted underground room intended for the storage of shrines. After 400 years, it was closed for visits. After the fall of the Venetian Republic, worship began again in the crypt.
In its center there is a chapel, decoratedopenwork slab of marble, under which the relics of the apostle Mark were previously stored. In 1835 they were transferred to the main altar of the temple. Crete of the cathedral of San Marco in Venice is of particular interest, since the surviving fragments of its architectural details scientists still refer to the times of the first cathedral.
What else is in the cathedral?
In the left part of the basilica is the altar of the Madonna, and next to it is built the chapel of Isidore, where a sarcophagus with the remains of a saint is kept.
In the right wing is a baptistery,intended for the baptism of infants. Its walls are decorated with marble, and the arches - with mosaic compositions. In the center of the room there is a stone font with a bronze lid, and next to it is a tombstone to the most revered doge - Andrea Dandolo.
Luxury mosaic works
Mosaic canvases on the walls and the dome cause a sense of admiration. Many of them were made in the XIII century, and the earliest dates back to the IX century.
Luxury compositions created by Italian craftsmen who worked with glass and stone. It is believed that the Venetian artists were introduced to the art of mosaic Byzantines, who often visited the city.
Colorful mosaics on the walls of the basilica tellabout the life of Jesus, they tell of the patron saints of the city. In the center of the dome of the cathedral there is the composition "Ascension of Christ", and on the arches - episodes from the New Testament.
Marble from Constantinople
The beauty of the mosaics on the walls is surprisingly combined with a rich ornament made of natural marble floor slabs.
I must say that this rock in the finishThe cathedral appeared only in the XIII century. The extraction of the Fourth Crusade was marble columns from the temples of Constantinople. Builders used the new material, resulting in even greater splendor of the ancient St. Mark's Cathedral in Venice.
The Cathedral of San Marco can be called a real museum of Venetian and Byzantine art, where priceless art works are collected.
History of the quadriga
Above the entrance to the basilica is the famousfour of racing horses, which were cast from bronze by Greek sculptors in the IV century BC. Quadriga first served as a decoration of the triumphal arch in Rome, later several centuries it was adorned on the gates of the racetrack in Constantinople.
In the XIII century, the Venetian Doge Enrique Dandolo,pulled the country out of the economic crisis, seized the capital of the Byzantine Empire, and as a trophy, took out a sculpture, which later, on the orders of Napoleon, was sent to Paris, where she stayed for about 18 years on the square Carousel. After the defeat of the army of Bonaparte, the quadriga returned to Venice, and by decision of the authorities it was hoisted above the main entrance of the basilica. During the war, the sculpture with an amazing story was filmed and hid in shelters.
Today, the bronze horses of the cathedral of San Marco in Venice are in the museum of the basilica, and the architectural monument is crowned with a beautifully executed copy, which appeared in the 70s of the last century.
Through the central entrance visitors enteratrium, the walls of which are decorated with marble and mosaic, admiring to the depths of the soul of the artist Surikov. Cloths tell about the events of the Old Testament, and every day of creation by the God of the world is indicated by a snow-white angel. There is also the tomb of Doharress (the wife of Doge), decorated with stone lace, Felicity Mikiyel.
Touch the collection of treasures of the charmingVenice and get the blessing of St. Mark today is very simple - it is enough to go to the relics of the Apostle, which is a chronicle of religious and civil history.
Before the visitors of the basilica there is a unique biography of the most unusual city on the water, which has attracted admired travelers from different parts of our planet for several centuries.