What is an appeal in Russian? Types and forms of calls in Russian
One of the most important elements in any nationalculture is verbal etiquette. The language, its stable constructions, reflects the rich experience of the people, the uniqueness of its traditions, customs, conditions and way of life. Speech illustrates the subjective perception of the picture of the world, corresponding to the consciousness and mentality of its bearer. Together with this language influences the bearer directly, forming his personality. This is due primarily to the fact that in the process of mastering a native speech a person absorbs into himself and the national culture, in which the features of a national character are laid, and the features of the world outlook.
In communication, which has a social orientation,the social roles of listeners and speakers are of particular importance. In this case, there is a certain functional dependence. The character of speech behavior of participants is set by the role position. At the same time, the language tools used in communication construct the situation. Speech is considered one of the most important tools that contribute to the assertion of a person's social status. The formation of an adequate understanding of the language communication between the communication participants is carried out by using different ways of denoting the social relationships within which communication is supposed to unfold. Together with direct representations, in which the social roles of participants are most significant in communication, there are indirect ones. The latter are a means of socio-symbolic type and are used to demonstrate the status and role positions of the interlocutors. One such tool is a reference in Russian. Consider this tool in more detail.
Appeals. General information
What is an appeal in Russian? This construction can reveal a social hierarchy, with equality of statuses - to express the personal relationship of one interlocutor to another. In this case, special words-appeals can be used. In Russian, as, indeed, in other speech systems, such constructions may indicate the title of the person with whom the dialogue is being conducted. Such elements, in particular, include "sir", "your honor", "your majesty" and others. Along with this, the forms of treatment in Russian can be emphasized by informality or, on the contrary, by the official nature of relations. For example: "my friends", "comrades", "ladies and gentlemen", "dear", "dear", "darling", "son" and others. I must say that a similar function is inherent in a number of designs used as farewells or greetings. For example: "Hello", "Hello", "Salute", "All the best" and others.
Speaking of what is an appeal in Russianlanguage, we should also mention the position of a person in society, which is clearly indicated by certain elements. In this issue, both civil status and a certain assessment of the interlocutor are considered. In the first case, the following constructions can be cited as an example: "citizen Petrov", "comrade Ivanov", "Ivan Petrovich". As assessment elements, the following can be cited: "Is it clear to you?", "You were not interested in why this is so?", "If it's easier for you to start with this, please. But in general I would like you to come after ...". It is believed that such treatment in the Russian language as an "assistant manager" (instead of a "ticket officer"), a "health care officer" (can be used instead of a "garbage collector"), contributes to the social status and increased self-esteem of a person.
There are different types of appeals in the Russian language.In general, the subject under consideration is not confined to specific constructions, the meaning of which is directly aimed at the interlocutor. As a verbal socio-symbolic means, a deliberate imitation of pronunciation occurs. So, for example, it is often that the child understands parents better, the latter adjust their speech to the nursery. But on the other hand, when there is a desire to step back from the interlocutor or a group of people, you can use elements, on the contrary, emphasizing the differences. Here, for example, French Canadians like when their politicians pronounce their speeches to the public in English, using a strong French accent (even if the figure speaks pure English). In the Russian language, as a rule, this difference is reflected in the style of speech.
"High" and "low" styles
This tool also applies to toolsverbal socially-symbolic communication. There are several subgroups in this group. "High" style implies an emphatically correct and correct construction and further use of words and their combinations. This speech is perceived as more formal, formal, somewhat distanced. "Low" style is spoken language. As a rule, jargon words, slang predominate here. Perceived such pronunciation as informal.
Using these or other techniques, the speaker cancontribute to the creation of a certain image. So, for example, the application of certain designs can make a person more confident in the eyes of others or more influential. But it can happen the other way round. An inappropriately used speech element can remove the interlocutors from the person, and he will lose the disposition of others. The one who pronounces words influences, as a rule, uses such a construction of the sentence: "Let's have dinner today" instead of "I suppose we could have dinner today". It is believed that such treatment in the Russian language, as given in the first case, involves a call to action, directs the interlocutor to its commission.
The researchers identified several forms of messages that do not have a significant impact on the interlocutor. In particular, they include:
- Expressive subjectivity evasive turns. For example: "I believe", "It seems to me," "I think," and so on.
- Linguistic "stuttering" - the elements expressing some indecision. In particular, they include disjoining interjections, such as "e", "well", "hm" and others.
- Some polite words. To them carry: "Be kind", "Excuse" and so on.
- Questions-endings: "It's cold here, is not it?", "We can finish, how do you think?".
"You" and "you"
Change the style of circulation can be by itselfa device that aims to "lower" or "increase" the status of the interlocutor. It is believed that such treatment in Russian as "you" is associated with friendly, informal relations. While "you" reflects emotional distance, formality, formality.