What is geodesy?

Geodesy has been known since ancient times. The origin of the word "geodesy" is Greek ("gedaisa", that is, "geo" - Earth, "dai" -share). Over the past half century, geodesy has been associated with artificial satellites, electronic machines, instruments, computers. What is geodesy?

Geodesy - determining the position of an object on the earth's surface, its shape, size. Geodesy is closely related to mathematics, geometry, physics. The main task of geodesy to create a coordinate system, to build geodetic networks, allowing to determine the position of points on the earth's surface.

The main tasks of geodesy

  • In the design and preparation of construction: engineering surveying for the design of buildings, buildings; geodetic calculations for project documentation (removal to the terrain, planning, calculations of earthworks).
  • In the process of construction: centering works (creation of a geodetic center on the ground, carrying out the main axes of the building, structure, detailed breakdowns); geodetic adjustment during construction, installation.
  • Control over construction and its operation: executive surveys during construction; monitoring the deformation of buildings.

Geodetic works

Most often, geodetic works are carried out during construction, transferring the building design, hydraulic structure to the terrain.

  • centering work - building a geodetic framework, removal in nature,
  • executive shootings - are made in process of construction, for stability, durability of a construction, building,
  • engineering and geodetic surveys - a set of geodetic works: topographic survey, the creation of a planning and high-altitude study, the construction of plans, the project of vertical planning.

Geodetic work takes place in two stages: field work — work that is carried out on the ground, and cameral work — processing the data obtained from the measurement on the ground or indoors.

Types of geodesy

  • topography is a description of the earth’s surface,
  • applied surveying, i.e. engineering geodesy, - engineering, organization, methods of geodetic works for solving engineering problems,
  • hydrography - description of the water space,
  • higher geodesy - methods and means of high-precision geodetic measurements,
  • aerial photogeodesy - methods for creating topographic maps for aerial photography, determining the size, shape,
  • Mine surveying - the field of geodesy for tunneling, mining,
  • astronomer-geodesy - the study of artificial and natural objects on the planets and inside them,
  • cadastre - accounting, assessment of the state and use of natural resources, engineering activities.

Tools for surveying

In geodesy professional tools are used: theodolite, level, tacheometer. Theodolite is a geodetic instrument that measures angles. Theodolites are used electronic and optical, for their reliable installation requires a tripod. The level is a geodetic instrument, for determining the heights of points, used mainly in construction. The tacheometer is a geodesic instrument for measuring vertical and horizontal angles, distances. Today they use a more modern one — an electronic total station; the data obtained when shooting is stored in the total station memory and transferred to a computer.

Related news

What is geodesy image, picture, imagery

What is geodesy 84

What is geodesy 59

What is geodesy 27

What is geodesy 48

What is geodesy 78

What is geodesy 21

What is geodesy 54

What is geodesy 25

What is geodesy 100