What is geodesy?
Geodesy has been known since ancient times. The origin of the word "geodesy" is Greek ("gedaisa", that is, "geo" - Earth, "dai" -share). Over the past half century, geodesy has been associated with artificial satellites, electronic machines, instruments, computers. What is geodesy?
Geodesy - determining the position of an object on the earth's surface, its shape, size. Geodesy is closely related to mathematics, geometry, physics. The main task of geodesy to create a coordinate system, to build geodetic networks, allowing to determine the position of points on the earth's surface.
The main tasks of geodesy
- In the design and preparation of construction: engineering surveying for the design of buildings, buildings; geodetic calculations for project documentation (removal to the terrain, planning, calculations of earthworks).
- In the process of construction: centering works (creation of a geodetic center on the ground, carrying out the main axes of the building, structure, detailed breakdowns); geodetic adjustment during construction, installation.
- Control over construction and its operation: executive surveys during construction; monitoring the deformation of buildings.
Most often, geodetic works are carried out during construction, transferring the building design, hydraulic structure to the terrain.
- centering work - building a geodetic framework, removal in nature,
- executive shootings - are made in process of construction, for stability, durability of a construction, building,
- engineering and geodetic surveys - a set of geodetic works: topographic survey, the creation of a planning and high-altitude study, the construction of plans, the project of vertical planning.
Geodetic work takes place in two stages: field work — work that is carried out on the ground, and cameral work — processing the data obtained from the measurement on the ground or indoors.
Types of geodesy
- topography is a description of the earth’s surface,
- applied surveying, i.e. engineering geodesy, - engineering, organization, methods of geodetic works for solving engineering problems,
- hydrography - description of the water space,
- higher geodesy - methods and means of high-precision geodetic measurements,
- aerial photogeodesy - methods for creating topographic maps for aerial photography, determining the size, shape,
- Mine surveying - the field of geodesy for tunneling, mining,
- astronomer-geodesy - the study of artificial and natural objects on the planets and inside them,
- cadastre - accounting, assessment of the state and use of natural resources, engineering activities.
Tools for surveying
In geodesy professional tools are used: theodolite, level, tacheometer. Theodolite is a geodetic instrument that measures angles. Theodolites are used electronic and optical, for their reliable installation requires a tripod. The level is a geodetic instrument, for determining the heights of points, used mainly in construction. The tacheometer is a geodesic instrument for measuring vertical and horizontal angles, distances. Today they use a more modern one — an electronic total station; the data obtained when shooting is stored in the total station memory and transferred to a computer.