What is tolerance?
A few years ago, the word "tolerance" was familiar only to sufficiently educated people and specialists in the field of sociology. However, there are still quite a few who do not know what tolerance means, but would like to know. Also recently in schools and universities often write on the topic of tolerance essay and other works. For those who wish to know this, and this article is intended.
What is tolerance: a definition in terms of linguistics
First, a few words about the origin of the word and its meaning from the point of view of linguistics. The word "tolerance" came to the Russian language in the 18th century through English from classical Latin, in which "tolerantia" meant "patience, tolerance". As a matter of fact, our Russian word "tolerance" fully covers the meaning of this foreign language word. However, scientists like to introduce special terms to refer to certain concepts in order to distinguish, so to say, “ordinary” meanings from “scientific”. The identity of the meanings of these words is confirmed by absolutely all explanatory dictionaries, where there is a definition of the word tolerance.Having opened any explanatory dictionary of the Russian language, you can easily see that the meanings of the words "tolerance" and "tolerance" are identical, because the former is always interpreted through the latter and only through it.
What is tolerance in sociology
Sociologists say that tolerance and tolerance must be distinguished. Tolerance is understood as a kind of passive attitude, when a person does not complain, does not oppose, and without a reproach resists some kind of disasters and unpleasant actions from others. Tolerance, according to sociologists, is an active lifestyle in which a person consciously and voluntarily accepts other social norms, which include: lifestyle, customs, behavior, religion, feelings, ideas, opinions, etc., that is everything that should be alien to him as a person who grew up in a different social environment. However, here sociologists, trying to defend the justification of introducing the term "tolerance" into the Russian language, still admit some inaccuracy. The fact is that the concept of "tolerance" implies a patience of condescension and mercy (see, for example, the explanatory dictionary of the Russian language V.I.Dahl), and this is the most active life position. Therefore, you do not need to puzzle over what tolerance is - tolerance in its best, noble manifestation. This is mutual (!) Tolerance for someone else’s way of life, for other people's habits and beliefs, without which it is impossible to build a normal civil society.
What is the tolerance of organisms
There is another meaning of the word "tolerance", this time absolutely justified from the linguistic point of view. This term is used in such sciences as biology and ecology. We are talking about the range of tolerance of organisms, their adaptability to certain conditions - for example, temperature. There are a number of terms describing the tolerance of organisms to various conditions. For example, the prefixes "eury-" and "steno-" speak about the latitude and narrowness of the tolerance range, respectively, and "poly-" and "oligo" - about the adaptation of organisms to high and low indicators of the selected range (for example, temperature). So, for example, stenotherm is an organism that can exist only in a limited temperature range, and a polytherm is an organism adapted to exist at high temperatures.